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Some of the historical syntheses include Arber and Parkin (1907), I. Bailey (1949), Edgar Anderson (1934), Axelrod (1952, 1970), Leppik (1960, 1968), Raven and Kyhos (1965), Cronquist (1968), Thorne (1968), Melville (1969), Takhtajan (1969, 1976, 1991), Raven and Axelrod (1974), Stebbins (1958, 1974), C. Beck (1976), Hughes (1976, 1994), Meeuse (1979), Nair (1979), Krassilov (1977), Retallack and Dilcher (1981 [two papers]), Asama (1982, 1985), Melville (1983), Crane (1985), Meyen (1986, 1988), Dilcher (1986, 2000), J. Doyle and Donoghue (1986, 1987), Endress (1987), Friis et al. If the answer to the preceding question is "yes," how does this evo-devo mechanism affect arthropod antagonist body allometries and population ecology? Further, the evo-devo of flight is yet another conundrum in paleoentomology (Grimaldi and Engel 2005). Poleward migration of early angiosperm flora - angiosperms only displaced the relict Jurassic-type flora at high latitudes in late Cretaceous time.

(2017) compile particularly relevant reference lists. Flowering material of Degeneria vitiensis is shown in the right-hand image (photographed by Paddy Ryan, Ph. Fragrance of this species resembles Cananga odorata according to Professor Al Smith (A. While discussing the effects of ice-house/hot house planetary climatic switches on expansion of land plant invertebrate herbivores Labandeira (2006) states: "One possibility is that these atmospheric variables have direct physiologic consequences on the selection and turnover of particular plant clades globally, which in turn elicit an associational response from selected clades of insect herbivores." The preceding statement is quoted from page 425 of C. Labandeira (2006), The four phases of plant-arthropod associations in deep time, Geologica Acta 4(4): 409-438. Additional compilations on the origin of angiosperms and floral morphology include Krassilov (1991), Thorne (1992), Endress (1993, 2001 [a book chapter and two papers], 2004), Friedman (1992 [two papers]), Stewart and Rothwell (1993), Nixon et al. Studies on Drosophila melanogaster eggs, specifically, artificial size-selection experimentation, affects larval patterning and body allometry (Miles et al. Do host seed plant brassinolides and other hormones affect insect antagonist egg size, potentially controlling larval tissue patterning? At the very earliest, flying insects were known from the Devonian Period.

The International Journal of Plant Sciences devotes most of Number 7 of Volume 169 (2008) toward the ongoing search for the earliest flowers, based on an international symposium held during the summer of 2007 at the Swedish Museum of Natural History (von Balthazar et al. More than twenty articles in Volume 96, Number 1 of the American Journal of Botany explore the origin, evolution, and radiation of flowering plants to celebrate the Charles Darwin Bicentennial (Stockey et al. Conrad Labandeira's several reviews on fossil insect-plant phytophagous associations (Labandeira 2000, 2006, 2007 [two papers], 2010, 2014) contain extensive bibliographies. 2008) and assembly of chitin and cuticle proteins into the exoskeleton (Charles 2010, Moussian 2010). Another Hox protein Abd-B, when combined with the Dsx enzyme, represses expression of the wg gene in fruit flies (W. I also add hexamerin moulting storage proteins which are related to hemocyanin respiratory enzymes (Burmester et al. 2006, Burmester and Hankein 2007), JH esterases, vitellogenin genes and yolk proteins (Isoe and Hagedorn 2007), pheromone chemoreceptors (Robertson and Wanner 2006), and certain nuclear receptor proteins (Bonneton et al. 2008) including ultraspiracle, and ecdysone inducible TFs to the list of molecular developmental tools among early diverging arthropod lineages. The first appearance of insect wings in the rock record of the Paleozoic Era has yet to be established.

Arthropod body allometry is intertwined with development of larval and imaginal disc tissues (Stern and Emlen 1999, Shingleton et al. 1997), Ubx (Pavlopoulos and Akam 2011), and the field-specific selector gene necessary for limb development in Drosophila (Diptera) known as dll (S. Fushi-tarazu protein encoded by the ftz gene, intracellular tertiary enzyme structure folding environments, and the apparent flexibility of Ftz and other Hox proteins in the evolution of arthropods, are discussed in a recent review by Merebet and Hudry (2011). These studies, among others underway or already published by Sean Carroll and colleagues, underscore the importance of Hox proteins in evolution of the arthropod tool kit. Mesozoic paleogeography and early angiosperm history.

Could paleoecologists benefit by studying experimental, 3-D printed artificial constructs of shoots and protoflowers in theoretical morphospace? By measuring and scaling detached and shed foliar and cone- floral-organs, and by combining these data with studies of permineralizations, "fingerprints of developmental regulation" (quoted from page 723, Sanders et al.

The image to the right is the passive insect trapping flowering plant, Darlingtonia californica (Sarraceniaceae, Ericales, Asteranae), photographed by the author at a seep on Eight Dollar Mountain located in the Klamath Region of western North America.

Ontogeny is thus the creative force behind botanical diversification, and small modifications at the genetic level may have a disproportionate effect on plant form as their consequences cascade and multiply through development. Kenrick (1997), Diverted development of reproductive organs: a source of morphological innovation in land plants, Plant Systematics and Evolution 206: 161-174. From the research perspectives of insect- and floral biology, and paleoentomology and floral morphology, scaling data might be applied to understanding and computing theoretical morphospace of whole invertebrate and/or plant organs (Jeune et al. Prothoracicotropic hormone and/or ecdysone secretion in Holometabola is negatively controlled by juvenile hormone (JH) (Truman and Riddiford 2002).

Taylor and Hickey (1992, 1996), Loconte (1996), and Krassilov (1997, 2002), among others. "The idea is that plants have a plastic and modular developmental system such that simple changes in regulatory genes need not lead to inviability but can generate novel, potentially favored phenotypes." The preceding quotation is from page 83 of D. "Ontogeny in land plants can be viewed as a complex, partly hierarchical, series of developmental processes, which together with their underlying genetic controls, provide the raw material for morphological innovation. The interface between development and ecology may be studied from such perspectives, among others (Enquist et al. "In theoretical morphospaces, the axes of the reduced space are determined by a small set of parameters of morphogenetic or other biological models, derived from theoretical considerations rather than from the organisms themselves" (page 841, Chartier et al. Scaling studies of reproductive short- (spur-) shoots of living Ginkgo are particularly revealing to plant morphologists (Christianson and 2009). Cessation of growth in holometabolous insects leading to a new moulting cycle is triggered by PTTH that initiates the ecdysone growth regulatory cascade.

Modern syntheses on the abominable mystery of the origin of angiosperms from unknown Paleozoic seed plant ancestors and modern radiations are published by Frohlich and Chase (2007), Maheshwari (2007), Sokolov and Timonin (2007), Zavada (2007), J. After integrating evidence as a whole with our results, the resulting scenario suggests that there is nothing particularly mysterious about the diversification of angiosperms during Cretaceous times or how it is reflected in the fossil record. The preceding statement is an optimistic appraisal of methodology used by Cascales-Miñana et al. Some "current viewpoints" are left out of the analysis. The preceding statement is from page 35 of Armen Takhtajan (1969), Flowering Plants: Origin and Dispersal (translated by C. Conrad Labandeira is apparently less than enthusiastic on the idea of a coevolutionary origin of the group (2014). "Tight coevolution" between animal disperser and plant was probably rare (page 3, Tiffney 2004). 2007) expressed as often disarticulated and shed, wood-, pollen-, seed-, foliar-, and cone- and floral- organs preserved in the fragmentary rock record of the Carboniferous, Permian, and Triassic periods.

Taylor (2009), Xin Wang (2009), Dilcher (2010), Magallón (2010), Stephen A. Stewart and Rothwell (1993) recapitulated the main steps needed to form the conduplicate carpel using glossopterid-, other seed fern-, and early angiosperm fossils as examples. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 521 pp., with additional comments distilled from E. Further, White proposed that the glossopterid Megafructi were a second basal group upon which ranalian angiosperms, monocotyledonous flowering plants including Pandanus (Pandanaceae, Pandanales, Arecidae), Williamsonia (a bennettitalean), additional cycads, and certain other angiosperms evolved (M. Principal morphologic innovations in angiosperms and gymnosperms according to Krassilov (1997) are: Paleoherb hypothesis. Burger published a paper in 1981 suggesting that the earliest angiosperms were monocotyledonous plants. Molecular tracers include naturally occurring but fossilized triterpenoids known as oleanone triterpanes (oleananes). These TSBs are a stratigraphically-important but "inconvenient truth," which is often buried or ignored in modern syntheses on the origin and evolution of flowering plants. Flowers and simple cones are reproductive short- (spur-) shoots according to Christianson and Jernstedt (2009).

A novel "Mosaic Theory for the Evolution of the Dimorphic Perianth" proposed by Warner et al. Melville develops his earlier ideas on a Gonophyll Theory (1969) in a review published in 1983 that proposes a Permian origin of angiosperms from glossopterids. Rothwell (1993), Paleobotany and the Evolution of Plants (second edition). Mary White (1986) proposes that glossopterid Microfructi were basal to several parallel but sometimes branching and reticulate lines of evolution leading to the Caytoniales, angiosperms, Cycas (Cycadaceae, Cycadales), Podocarpaceae (Podocarpales), Araucariaceae (Araucariales), and certain catkin-bearing angiosperms including the Casuarinaceae. The polyphyletic-polychromic-polytopic hypothesis (Z.-Y. Cyclic angiospermization is reviewed by Krassilov (1997) and Ponomarenko (1998) within the context of a polyphyletic origin of angiosperms. Clifford (1982), The Monocotyledons: A Comparative Study. A discussion of this theory and how it links to the anthophyte hypothesis is presented by T. A few elements of ideas proposed by Cascales-Miñana et al. Armen Takhtajan's often criticized proposal on a "neotenous" origin of flowering plants (1969, 1976, and previous papers) is my starting place. Equally puzzling is that despite intense interest in the origins of seed plants and angiosperms throughout the entire last century, few have looked at the problems from a life cycle evo-devo perspective, with perhaps one exception (Takhtajan 1976), who alluded to neoteny as one of the possible mechanisms contributing to the origin of angiosperms." "Some authors seem curiously determined to prove that pre-Cretaceous fossils are crown-group angiosperms, but for understanding most aspects of the origin of angiosperms [other than their age], close stem relatives would be far more significant ..." (page 318, J. Doyle 2012) Based on four decades of study of the problem by Professor Emeritus J. Doyle, where on the Pangaean continent (and when) do students of angio-ovuly and the origin of flowering plants focus the search for "close stem relatives" of the group? Surprising and often ignored clues shedding light on the shadowy origin of flowering plants originate from oil and gas exploration data and the geochemistry of taxon-specific biomarkers (TSBs) and molecular traces, which are recoverable from mud logs of well boreholes, or from coal balls, compressions, and permineralizations (Moldowan and Jacobson 2002). Mud-loggers are able to ascertain higher plant input into a core segment of a stratigraphic horizon pulled-up from the well-site gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, and microscopic analysis of animal and plant microfossils including pollen and vascular plant fragments in core samples. Rudall (2006), Morphological and molecular phylogenetic context of the angiosperms: contrasting the 'top-down' and 'bottom-up' approaches used to infer the likely characteristics of the first flowers, Journal of Experimental Botany 57(13): 3471-3503. Flowering plants probably did not appear "suddenly," and the concept of a so-called "first flower" including proposals published by Albert et al. The reproductive short- (spur-) shoots of these Permo-carboniferous seed plants were equivalent to theoretical constructs of the protoflower proposed by Leppik (1960, 1968).

The image above is the northwestern face of the Korombasabasaga Range, Viti Levu Island, Fiji as viewed from the road between Namosi and Wainimakutu villages. A review of neotenous development in termites is available (Korb and Hartfelder 2008). Structurally similar to bioactive plant brassinosteroids, 20E-ecdysone induces a cascade of TF biosynthesis important in the regulation of insect development (Truman and Riddiford 2002, De Loof 2008). One line of paleobiological thinking hypothesizes that insects took flight to exploit new habitat. Did ingestion of seed plant brassinosteroids by pterygote insects affect the evo-devo of wings from thoracic limb pads and JH signaling?

The evo-devo of insect caste polyphenism is reviewed by Emlen and Nijhout (2000). Thummel and Chory (2002) point to a possible coevolutionary connection between the 20E-ecdysone/cytochrome P biosynthetic machinery of insect antagonists and seed plant hosts. Further, changes in the arthropod homeodomain and evolution of new protein motifs led to new Hox developmental tool kit functions in certain insect lineages (S. The paleobiology of insect flight in relation to the advent of arthropod-seed plant mutualisms remains unexplained.